New Zealand Reverses Offshore Petroleum Ban

Government Aims to Boost Energy Security Amid Declining Natural Gas Reserves


New Zealand’s government is taking a significant step towards reshaping its energy policy landscape by reversing the ban on offshore petroleum exploration, which has been in place since 2018. This move is part of a broader suite of proposed amendments to the country’s Minerals Act, aimed at addressing the pressing energy security challenges posed by rapidly depleting natural gas reserves.

A Historical Perspective

In 2018, under the Labor Coalition government led by former Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, New Zealand imposed a moratorium on new offshore oil exploration permits. This decision was lauded by environmental groups as a groundbreaking victory in the fight against climate change and fossil fuel dependency. It marked New Zealand as a leader in environmental stewardship on the global stage. However, the ban also attracted significant criticism from opposition parties, particularly the National Party, which argued that it amounted to economic self-sabotage.

Policy Reversal: A Campaign Promise Fulfilled

The National Party, now the ruling party under Prime Minister Christopher Luxon, has long advocated for the reversal of the ban. This policy shift was a key election pledge of Luxon’s campaign, emphasizing the need for pragmatic solutions to the country’s energy issues. Resources Minister Shane Jones, in a statement on Sunday, underscored the importance of this reversal in addressing energy security concerns, given the rapidly declining natural gas reserves.

Legislative Reforms for a Balanced Energy Future

The proposed Minerals Amendment Bill is a cornerstone of the current government’s legislative agenda aimed at revitalizing the energy sector. Expected to be introduced to Parliament in the latter half of the year, this bill follows closely on the heels of the recently tabled Fast-track Approvals Bill. The latter is designed to streamline the approval process for renewable energy projects, providing a more efficient pathway for obtaining necessary environmental and planning permits through a one-stop-shop approach.

“Our job as the Government is to provide the right policy settings to enable the sector to get to work, and that’s exactly what we are aiming to achieve through these amendments. New Zealand cannot ignore the significant economic contributions the petroleum and resources sector delivers,” Shane Jones stated.

Economic Impact and Strategic Considerations

The economic stakes are high. Government estimates indicate that the petroleum and mineral sectors contributed nearly $1.2 billion to New Zealand’s GDP in the 2020-21 fiscal year, with $144 million in government revenue in 2022-23. By reopening offshore exploration, the government aims to bolster the national economy and ensure a stable energy supply, particularly as the country transitions to more renewable energy sources.

Natural gas, despite being a fossil fuel, is seen as a critical bridge in this transition. It offers a reliable backup to intermittent renewable sources such as wind, solar, and hydro power, thereby maintaining the stability of electricity generation. This is particularly crucial for New Zealand, which has been increasingly reliant on renewable energy but faces challenges due to the variable nature of these sources.

Changes to Permit Allocation

The Minerals Amendment Bill also proposes changes to the process of allocating petroleum exploration permits. Currently, these permits are awarded through a competitive tender process. The new bill introduces the option of a non-tender method, known as priority in time, allowing for more flexibility and potentially expediting the development of new projects.

Global Context and Comparisons

New Zealand’s policy shift can be seen in the context of broader global trends where countries are balancing environmental commitments with economic and energy security needs. For instance, in the United States, the Biden administration has faced similar dilemmas, grappling with the need to reduce carbon emissions while also ensuring energy independence and economic growth. Similarly, European countries have had to revisit their energy policies in light of geopolitical tensions and the need for reliable energy sources.


New Zealand’s decision to reverse the offshore petroleum exploration ban reflects a pragmatic approach to energy policy, one that seeks to balance environmental aspirations with economic realities. As the country navigates this complex landscape, the legislative reforms being introduced will play a crucial role in shaping its energy future, ensuring that it remains secure, sustainable, and economically viable. The coming months will be critical in seeing how these proposed changes unfold in Parliament and their subsequent impact on New Zealand’s energy sector.

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